Featured BMP: Watering Facilities
Featured Best Management Practice: Watering Facilitiesby John Czajkowski One of the most valuable Best Management Practices (BMP) that I think a landowner can install is a watering facility. On the conservation side, it allows a landowner to provide water for their livestock without accessing a stream, thus reducing nutrients and sediment from entering the Bay. On the management side, it allows a landowner to visually monitor livestock as stream corridors are usually wooded and some have steep slopes leading to the stream. There's no need to worry about what is in the water upstream. You know the water is clean and without contaminants and you can monitor the animal(s) intake of water. There are many types of troughs or waterers you can install. They fall in two general categories: waterers fed by natural springs and pressure fed waterers. These concrete troughs utilize natural springs to supply water. They are practically damage proof and provide a constant source of water with little to no risk of freezing. Heavy use areas should be incorporated into the design to minimize erosion. The heavy use area should extend a minimum of six feet beyond the trough. Large troughs like these can be placed on the fence line to provide water for two pastures.
Waterers Fed By Natural SpringsThese waterers do not require any electricity to pump or heat the water. The constant flow of water keeps it from freezing. Gravity provides the flow. They are usually a round concrete trough with a 12-inch hole in the middle of the floor. Perforated pipes in a bed of stone are used to collect the subsurface water and the underground line becomes a solid pipe that runs downhill to the concrete trough. The pipe comes up through the center of the trough. Another pipeline is installed in the center and provides an outlet for water not used. Generally, the water leaving the trough flows into a nearby stream. If the underground water supply is available all year, the waterer will have a constant flow. The drawback of this system is in a drought. During dry times the water table may drop below where the perforated underground collection pipe was installed, causing the waterer to go dry. The advantage to this system is a constant source of fresh, cool clean water without the use of electricity or pressure tank and it does not freeze. Spring fed waterers are ideal for equine, cattle, sheep and goats. The trough itself can be ordered in different sizes and installed at any height to accommodate any size livestock. The “JUG” is a pressure waterer and provides water on demand. At first you allow the concave area to fill with water to get the animals used to drinking out of it. Over time you reduce the level of water and eventually no water is exposed and the animal has to draw it out. This design shows a stone dust Heavy Use Area Protection. This waterer serves two paddock areas.
Pressure Fed WaterersThere are several different designs that can be purchased depending on the type of livestock and the needs of the landowner. They all rely on a pressure tank to supply the water. The set up requires a well or other source of water, electricity and a pressure tank that is in a location that will not allow it to freeze. A pipeline is run underground from the pressure tank to the waterer. Since they only flow on demand there is a greater chance they will freeze. Different companies have different methods to prevent the water from freezing in the trough. Some require an electric heater; others rely on foam insulation and the constant use of the trough. Most have some method of limiting the water’s exposure to the cold air. The advantage to these waterers is a guaranteed source of clean fresh water. The amount of water used is only what the livestock needs. Maintenance is minimum. The disadvantages are, if the electricity goes out the trough will not refill. Some designs require constant use to keep from freezing which could be a problem with small herds. They may be more expensive to install if you do not already have a well and pressure tank available. On the left, the pressure fed waterer has movable floating spheres to keep the water from being exposed. The livestock learn to push the spheres out of the way to access the water. Note the concrete heavy Use Area around the trough. On the right, a Nelson stainless steel waterer. It has a pressure plate that senses when to add water and utilizes an electric heater to keep the water from freezing in the winter. The stainless steel bowl simply lifts out for cleaning. The black cloth is the geotextile and it is ready to receive stone dust or wood chips. Nelson waterers are too small to be split by a fence, so you need one per pasture.
Heavy Use Area ProtectionWatering Facilities become high traffic areas, so we always install Heavy Use Area Protection around them. Since we know it will be difficult to maintain grass around the trough, we remove eight inches of soil a minimum of six from all around the trough and either, install geotextile with eight inches of stone dust or place three to four inches of stone and pour a concrete around the trough. With the concrete we make sure it is a little rough and not perfectly smooth, so the animals have traction. The concrete is always sloped away from the trough.
Designing for Watering FacilitiesWatering Facilities can stand alone or be placed in series to supply multiple pastures with water. One Watering Facility can supply two pastures with water if it is placed on the fence line.
Next StepIf you think you may be interested in installing a Watering Facility, please give us a call. Cost share is available through both the Maryland Department of Agriculture cost share program and through Natural Resource Conservation programs.
Equine Nutrient Management and Conservation Practices Training
Environmental Training Event for Equine Operations
Thursday, May 2 2019 • 8:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m.Participants earn six continuing education credits from the NMP
AboutThe Maryland Department of Agriculture and the Maryland Horse Council’s Farm Stewardship Committee are offering an environmental training event for owners and managers of large and small equine operations. The training is scheduled for Thursday, May 2, at the department’s headquarters, 50 Harry S Truman Parkway, Annapolis. This training provides participants with an overview of Maryland’s nutrient management requirements, best management practices, and basic soil conservation techniques for farms. Additional topics include cost-share and other financial incentives for large and small equine operations, pasture management techniques, basic fertility for pastures and hay, setbacks, buffers, and manure management, including storage and handling. The Farm Stewardship Certification and Assessment Program (FSCAP) and Maryland’s Watershed Implementation Plan (WIP) requirements will be discussed. Instructors are university and government experts. Registration $30, by April 26 - Download form
Who Should Attend?Owners and operators of equine operations, boarding stable license holders, and anyone involved in the equine industry who desires greater knowledge of environmental responsibility on their farms. Participants earn six continuing education credits from the NMP.
Training DetailsThursday May 2, 2019 9:00 a.m. – 3:30 p.m. (check-in opens at 8:30 a.m.) Maryland Department of Agriculture Lower level conference rooms 50 Harry S. Truman Parkway Annapolis, Maryland 21401
Registration Information$30.00 check or money order, payable in advance. This non- refundable fee covers learning materials, breakfast and lunch. Register by mail by Friday, April 26, 2019. Seating is limited and registration will be accepted only on a pre-paid first come, first served basis. No registrations will be accepted by phone or at the door. Complete and mail the registration form along with the required payment of $30.00 per person as soon as possible to best ensure a seat for the course. You will receive a confirmation by email before the training session begins. Download Registration Form
REMINDER: NRCS Conservation Programs Deadline Feb 15th
Annapolis, Md., January 15, 2019 — Maryland farmers and forest landowners can now apply for assistance to protect the health and productivity of their land through federal conservation programs. USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Service offers technical and financial assistance to plan and install conservation practices on cropland, pastureland, and non-industrial private forestland. NRCS accepts applications year-round but makes funding selections at specific times. Maryland has established February 15, 2019 as the next deadline for the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP), the Agricultural Management Assistance program (AMA), and EQIP applications for Regional Conservation Partnership Program projects. EQIP provides financial and technical assistance to agricultural producers and forestland owners to address natural resource concerns and deliver environmental benefits such as improved water quality, reduced soil erosion, and improvements in soil health, wildlife habitat, plant and animal communities and energy conservation. AMA is designed help with irrigation systems and high tunnels. Maryland currently offers RCPP in select areas across the state through local projects that range in focus, from animal waste management practices, to improving soil health, to wildlife habitat restoration. During a government shutdown, agencies that receive mandatory funding or have funds appropriated in prior years that are carried forward can continue to serve customers using that money. NRCS is in this category and is open for business. A conservation plan should be completed before an application can be considered for funding, so farmers are encouraged to call or stop by their local NRCS field office as soon as possible. You can find your local office by visiting https://www.farmers.gov/service-locator or in the phone book under Federal Government, U.S. Department of Agriculture. A complete list of eligible activities is available on the NRCS Maryland website at www.md.nrcs.usda.gov.